Turbine Blades

Steam TurbineThe most important turbine elements are the turbine blades. They are the principal elements that convert pressure energy of working fluid into kinetic energy. Turbine blades are of two basic types:

  • moving blades
  • fixed blades

In steam turbines, the steam expands through the fixed blade (nozzle), where the pressure potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. The high-velocity steam from fixed nozzles impacts the moving blades, changes its direction and also expands (in case of reaction type blades). The change in its direction and the steam acceleration (in case of reaction type blades) applies a force. The resulting impulse drives the blades forward, causing the rotor to turn. Steam turbine types based on blade geometry and energy conversion process are:

  • impulse turbine
  • reaction turbine

Modern steam turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit, typically varying the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery. The rotor blades are usually designed like an impulse blade at the rot and like a reaction blade at the tip.

Turbine Blade - Impulse and Reaction

steam_turbine_blade_3The efficiency and reliability of a turbine depend on the proper design of the blades. It is therefore necessary for all engineers involved in the turbines engineering to have an overview of the importance and the basic design aspects of the steam turbine blades. Engineering of turbine blades is a multi-disciplinary task. It involves the thermodynamics, aerodynamics, mechanical and material engineering.

For gas turbines, the turbine blades are often the limiting component.  The highest temperature in the cycle occurs at the end of the combustion process, and it is limited by the maximum temperature that the turbine blades can withstand. As usual, metallurgical considerations (about 1700 K) place an upper limits on thermal efficiency. Therefore turbine blades often use exotic materials like superalloys and many different methods of cooling, such as internal air channels, boundary layer cooling, and thermal barrier coatings. The development of superalloys in the 1940s and new processing methods such as vacuum induction melting in the 1950s greatly increased the temperature capability of turbine blades. Modern turbine blades often use nickel-based superalloys that incorporate chromium, cobalt, and rhenium.

Steam turbine blades are not exposed to such high temperatures, but they must withstand an operation with two-phase fluid. High content of water droplets can cause the rapid impingement and erosion of the blades which occurs when condensed water is blasted onto the blades. To prevent this, for example, condensate drains are installed in the steam piping leading to the turbine. Another challenge for engineers is the design of blades of the last stage of LP turbine. These blades must be (due to high specific volume of steam) very long, which induces enormous centrifugal forces during operation. Therefore, turbine blades are subjected to stress from centrifugal force (turbine stages can rotate at tens of thousands of revolutions per minute (RPM), but usually at 1800 RPM) and fluid forces that can cause fracture, yielding, or creep failures.

Turbine Blades – Root, Profile, Shroud

Turbine blades are usually divided into three parts:

  • Root. The root is a constructional feature of turbine blades, which fixes the blade into the turbine rotor.
  • Profile. The profile converts kinetic energy of steam into mechanical energy of the blade.
  • Shroud.  The shroud reduces the vibration of the blade which can be induced by the flowing of high pressure steam through the blades.

Types of Steam Turbines

Steam Turbine - types

Steam turbines may be classified into different categories depending on their construction, working pressures, size and many other parameters. But there are two basic types of steam turbines:

  • impulse turbines
  • reaction turbines.

The main distinction is the manner in which the steam is expanded as it passes through the turbine.

Impulse Turbine and Reaction Turbine

Steam turbine types based on blade geometry and energy conversion process are impulse turbine and reaction turbine.

Steam Turbine - Types of Turbine

Reactor Physics and Thermal Hydraulics:

  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
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  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
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  6. Zohuri B., McDaniel P. Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems. Springer; 2015, ISBN: 978-3-319-13419-2
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  9. U.S. Department of Energy, THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1, 2 and 3. June 1992.
  10. U.S. NRC. NUREG-0800, Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition

See above: