is a concept that helps to identify the stability of an isotope. To identify the stability of an isotope it is needed to find the ratio of neutrons
to protons. To determine the stability of an isotope you can use the ratio neutron/proton (N/Z). Also to help understand this concept there is a chart of the nuclides, known as a Segre chart. This chart shows a plot of the known nuclides as a function of their atomic and neutron numbers. It can be observed from the chart that there are more neutrons than protons
in nuclides with Z greater
than about 20 (Calcium). These extra neutrons
are necessary for stability of the heavier nuclei. The excess neutrons act somewhat like nuclear glue.
See also: Livechart – iaea.org
Detail of Nuclide Chart.
Source: Livechart – IAEA.org
Atomic nuclei consist of protons and neutrons, which attract each other through the nuclear force, while protons repel each other via the electric force due to their positive charge. These two forces compete, leading to various stability of nuclei. There are only certain combinations of neutrons and protons, which forms stable nuclei.
Neutrons stabilize the nucleus, because they attract each other and protons , which helps offset the electrical repulsion between protons. As a result, as the number of protons increases, an increasing ratio of neutrons to protons is needed to form a stable nucleus. If there are too many or too few neutrons for a given number of protons, the resulting nucleus is not stable and it undergoes radioactive decay. Unstable isotopes decay through various radioactive decay pathways, most commonly alpha decay, beta decay, or electron capture. Many other rare types of decay, such as spontaneous fission or neutron emission are known. It should be noted that all of these decay pathways may be accompanied by the subsequent emission of gamma radiation. Pure alpha or beta decays are very rare.
Nuclei, such as 15
O, which are lacking in neutrons
(consist of 8 protons and 7 neutrons) undergo positron decay
(positive beta decay). In this process, one of the protons in the nucleus is transformed into a neutron, positron and neutrino
.The positron and the neutrino are emitted. The number of protons is thus reduced from 8 to 7 (number of neutrons is increased from 7 to 8), so that the resulting nucleus is an isotope of nitrogen, 15
N, which is stable
On the other hand nuclei, such as 19
O, which have excess of neutrons
, decay by negative beta decay
, emitting a negative electron and an antineutrino
. In this process, one of the neutrons in the nucleus is transformed into a proton. The number of protons is thus increased from 8 to 9 (number of neutrons is reduced from 11 to 10), so that the resulting nucleus is an isotope of fluor, 19
F, which is stable
. It should be noted that in both positive or negative beta decays the atomic mass number remains the same.
Nuclear Stability – Periodic Table
Periodic table with elements colored according to the half-life of their most stable isotope.
Of the first 82 elements in the periodic table, 80 have isotopes considered to be stable. Technetium, promethium and all the elements with an atomic number over 82 are unstable and decompose through radioactive decay. No undiscovered heavy elements (with atomic number over 110) are expected to be stable, therefore lead is considered the heaviest stable element. For each of the 80 stable elements, the number of the stable isotopes is given. For example, tin has 10 such stable isotopes.
There are 80 elements with at least one stable isotope, but 114 to 118 chemical elements are known. All elements to element 98 are found in nature, and the remainder of the discovered elements are artificially produced, with isotopes all known to be highly radioactive with relatively short half-lives.
Bismuth, thorium, uranium and plutonium are primordial nuclides because they have half-lives long enough to still be found on the Earth, while all the others are produced either by radioactive decay or are synthesized in laboratories and nuclear reactors. Primordial nuclides are nuclides found on the Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed. Primordial nuclides are residues from the Big Bang, from cosmogenic sources, and from ancient supernova explosions which occurred before the formation of the solar system. Only 288 such nuclides are known.
Connection between Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay
The nuclei of radioisotopes are unstable. In an attempt to reach a more stable arrangement of its neutrons and protons, the unstable nucleus will spontaneously decay to form a different nucleus. If the number of neutrons changes in the process (number of protons remains), a different isotopes is formed and an element remains (e.g. neutron emission). If the number of protons changes (different atomic number) in the process, then an atom of a different element is formed. This decomposition of the nucleus is referred to as radioactive decay. During radioactive decay an unstable nucleus spontaneosly and randomly decomposes to form a different nucleus (or a different energy state – gamma decay), giving off radiation in the form of atomic partices or high energy rays. This decay occurs at a constant, predictable rate that is referred to as half-life. A stable nucleus will not undergo this kind of decay and is thus non-radioactive.