Copernicium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Copernicium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Copernicium is — J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Copernicium is — kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Copernicium is — kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

Table of specific heat capacitieswhere the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid, or from liquid to gas a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which descibes phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion, (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J) also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a change in phase. This energy breaks down the intermolecular attractive forces, and also must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has a higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid in order to melt it and energy is released from a liquid when it freezes, because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and so have a higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Copernicium – Properties

ElementCopernicium
Atomic Number112
SymbolCn
Element CategoryTransition Metal
Phase at STPSynthetic
Atomic Mass [amu]285
Density at STP [g/cm3]
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 ?
Possible Oxidation States
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale]
1st Ionization Energy [eV]
Year of Discovery1996
DiscovererArmbruster, Paula & Muenzenberg, Dr. Gottfried
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale]
Boiling Point [Celsius scale]
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K]
Specific Heat [J/g K]
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol]
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol]

 

Copernicium in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1HHe­lium2He
Lith­ium3LiBeryl­lium4BeBoron5BCarbon6CNitro­gen7NOxy­gen8OFluor­ine9FNeon10Ne
So­dium11NaMagne­sium12MgAlumin­ium13AlSili­con14SiPhos­phorus15PSulfur16SChlor­ine17ClArgon18Ar
Potas­sium19KCal­cium20CaScan­dium21ScTita­nium22TiVana­dium23VChrom­ium24CrManga­nese25MnIron26FeCobalt27CoNickel28NiCopper29CuZinc30ZnGallium31GaGerma­nium32GeArsenic33AsSele­nium34SeBromine35BrKryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37RbStront­ium38SrYttrium39YZirco­nium40ZrNio­bium41NbMolyb­denum42MoTech­netium43TcRuthe­nium44RuRho­dium45RhPallad­ium46PdSilver47AgCad­mium48CdIndium49InTin50SnAnti­mony51SbTellur­ium52TeIodine53IXenon54Xe
Cae­sium55CsBa­rium56BaLan­thanum57La1 asteriskHaf­nium72HfTanta­lum73TaTung­sten74WRhe­nium75ReOs­mium76OsIridium77IrPlat­inum78PtGold79AuMer­cury80HgThallium81TlLead82PbBis­muth83BiPolo­nium84PoAsta­tine85AtRadon86Rn
Fran­cium87FrRa­dium88RaActin­ium89Ac1 asteriskRuther­fordium104RfDub­nium105DbSea­borgium106SgBohr­ium107BhHas­sium108HsMeit­nerium109MtDarm­stadtium110DsRoent­genium111RgCoper­nicium112CnNihon­ium113NhFlerov­ium114FlMoscov­ium115McLiver­morium116LvTenness­ine117TsOga­nesson118Og
1 asteriskCerium58CePraseo­dymium59PrNeo­dymium60NdProme­thium61PmSama­rium62SmEurop­ium63EuGadolin­ium64GdTer­bium65TbDyspro­sium66DyHol­mium67HoErbium68ErThulium69TmYtter­bium70YbLute­tium71Lu
1 asteriskThor­ium90ThProtac­tinium91PaUra­nium92UNeptu­nium93NpPluto­nium94PuAmeri­cium95AmCurium96CmBerkel­ium97BkCalifor­nium98CfEinstei­nium99EsFer­mium100FmMende­levium101MdNobel­ium102NoLawren­cium103Lr