Conservation of Energy in Fluid Mechanics – Bernoulli’s Principle
The law of conservation of energy can be used also in the analysis of flowing fluids.
The Bernoulli’s equation can be considered to be a statement of the conservation of energy principle appropriate for flowing fluids. It is one of the most important/useful equations in fluid mechanics. It puts into a relation pressure and velocity in an inviscid incompressible flow. The general energy equation is simplified to:
This equation is the most famous equation in fluid dynamics. The Bernoulli’s equation describes the qualitative behavior flowing fluid that is usually labeled with the term Bernoulli’s effect. This effect causes the lowering of fluid pressure in regions where the flow velocity is increased. This lowering of pressure in a constriction of a flow path may seem counterintuitive, but seems less so when you consider pressure to be energy density. In the high velocity flow through the constriction, kinetic energy must increase at the expense of pressure energy. The dimensions of terms in the equation are kinetic energy per unit volume. The equation above assumes that no non-conservative forces (e.g. friction forces) are acting on the fluid. This is very strong assumption.
Extended Bernoulli’s equation
The Bernoulli’s equation can be modified to take into account gains and losses of head, caused by external forces and non-conservative forces. The resulting equation, referred to as the extended Bernoulli’s equation, is very useful in solving most fluid flow problems. The following equation is one form of the extended Bernoulli’s equation.
- h = height above reference level (m)
- v = average velocity of fluid (m/s)
- p = pressure of fluid (Pa)
- Hpump = head added by pump (m)
- Hfriction = head loss due to fluid friction (m)
- g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
The head loss (or the pressure loss) due to fluid friction (Hfriction) represents the energy used in overcoming friction caused by the walls of the pipe. The head loss that occurs in pipes is dependent on the flow velocity, pipe diameter and length, and a friction factor based on the roughness of the pipe and the Reynolds number of the flow. A piping system containing many pipe fittings and joints, tube convergence, divergence, turns, surface roughness and other physical properties will also increase the head loss of a hydraulic system.
Although the head loss represents a loss of energy, it does does not represent a loss of total energy of the fluid. The total energy of the fluid conserves as a consequence of the law of conservation of energy. In reality, the head loss due to friction results in an equivalent increase in the internal energy (increase in temperature) of the fluid.
This phenomenon can be seen also in case of reactor coolant pumps. Generally reactor coolant pumps are very powerful, they can consume up to 6 MW each and therefore they can be used for heating the primary coolant before a reactor startup. For example from 30°C at cold zero power (CZP) up to 290°C at hot zero power (HZP).