**several criteria**.

**All fluid flow** is classified into one of two broad categories or regimes. These two flow regimes are:

**Single-phase Fluid Flow****Multi-phase Fluid Flow**(or**Two-phase Fluid Flow**)

This is a **basic classification**. All of the fluid flow equations (e.g. **Bernoulli’s Equation**) and relationships that were discussed in this section (Fluid Dynamics) were derived for the flow of a **single phase** of fluid whether liquid or vapor. Solution of multi-phase fluid flow is **very complex and difficult** and therefore it is usually in advanced courses of fluid dynamics.

Another usually more common classification of **flow regimes** is according to the shape and type of **streamlines**. All fluid flow is classified into one of two broad categories. The fluid flow can be either laminar or turbulent and therefore these two categories are:

**Laminar Flow****Turbulent Flow**

**Laminar flow** is characterized by **smooth** or in **regular paths** of particles of the fluid. Therefore the laminar flow is also referred to as **streamline or viscous flow**. In contrast to laminar flow, **turbulent flow** is characterized by the **irregular movement** of particles of the fluid. The turbulent fluid does not flow in parallel layers, the lateral mixing is very high, and there is a disruption between the layers. **Most industrial flows**, especially those in nuclear engineering **are turbulent**.

The flow regime can be also classified according to the **geometry of a conduit** or flow area. From this point of view, we distinguish:

**Internal Flow****External Flow**

**Internal flow** is a flow for which the fluid is confined by a surface. Detailed knowledge of behaviour of internal flow regimes is **of importance in engineering**, because circular pipes can withstand high pressures and hence are used to convey liquids. On the other hand, **external flow** is such a flow in which boundary layers develop freely, without constraints imposed by adjacent surfaces. Detailed knowledge of behaviour of **external flow** regimes is **of importance especially in aeronautics** and **aerodynamics**.

## External Flow

In fluid dynamics,** external flow** is such a flow in which boundary layers develop freely, without constraints imposed by adjacent surfaces. In comparison to internal flow, entrance flows and external flows feature highly viscous effects confined to rapidly growing “**boundary layers**” in the entrance region, or to thin shear layers along the solid surface. Accordingly, there will always exist a region of the flow **outside the boundary layer**. In this region velocity, temperature, and/or concentration does not change in and their gradients may be neglected.

**This effect causes the boundary layer to be expanding and the boundary-layer thickness relates to the square root of the fluid’s kinematic viscosity.**

**This is demonstrated on the following picture. Far from the body the flow is nearly inviscid, it can be defined as the flow of a fluid around a body that is completely submerged in it.**

** **

## Fluid Flow over a Flat Plate

In general, when a fluid flows over a **stationary surface**, e.g. the flat plate, the bed of a river, or the wall of a pipe, the fluid touching the surface is brought to rest by the **shear stress** to at the wall. The region in which flow adjusts from zero velocity at the wall to a maximum in the main stream of the flow is termed the **boundary layer**. The concept of boundary layers is of importance in all of viscous fluid dynamics and also in the theory of heat transfer.

Basic characteristics of all **laminar and turbulent boundary layers** are shown in the developing flow over a flat plate. The stages of the formation of the boundary layer are shown in the figure below:

Boundary layers may be either laminar, or turbulent depending on the value of the Reynolds number.

See also: Boundary Layer

**Nusselt number**over the entire plate is determined by:

This relation gives the average **heat transfer coefficient **for the entire plate when the flow is laminar over the entire plate.

This relation gives the average **heat transfer coefficient** for the entire plate only when the flow is **turbulent** over the entire plate, or when the laminar flow region of the plate is too small relative to the turbulent flow region.

## Tube in crossflow

The crossflow of tubes or cylinders shows many flow regimes, that are dependent on the **Reynolds number**.

**Re**. At Reynolds numbers below 1 no separation occurs._{D}< 5**5 ≤ Re**. In this Reynolds number range the flow separates from the rear side of the tube and a symmetric pair of vortices is formed in the near_{D}≤ 45**wake**.**40 ≤ Re**. In this Reynolds number range the_{D}≤ 150*wake*becomes unstable and v**ortex shedding**is initiated.**150 < Re**. In this Reynolds number range is the flow transitional and gradually becomes turbulent as the Reynolds number is increased._{D}< 300**300 < Re**. This region is called subcritical. The laminar boundary layer separates at about 80 degrees downstream of the front stagnation point and the vortex shedding is strong and periodic._{D}< 1.5·10^{5}**2·10**. Three-dimensional effects disrupt the regular shedding process and the spectrum of shedding frequencies is broadened. With a further increase of Re^{5}< Re_{D}< 3.5·10^{6}_{D}, the flow enters the critical regime.**Re**. This regime is called supercritical. In this regime a regular vortex shedding is re-established with a turbulent boundary layer on the tube surface._{D}> 3.5·10^{6}

**Reactor Physics and Thermal Hydraulics:**

- J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
- J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
- W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
- Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
- Todreas Neil E., Kazimi Mujid S. Nuclear Systems Volume I: Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Second Edition. CRC Press; 2 edition, 2012, ISBN: 978-0415802871
- Zohuri B., McDaniel P. Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems. Springer; 2015, ISBN: 978-3-319-13419-2
- Moran Michal J., Shapiro Howard N. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Fifth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN: 978-0-470-03037-0
- Kleinstreuer C. Modern Fluid Dynamics. Springer, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4020-8670-0.
- U.S. Department of Energy, THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1, 2 and 3. June 1992.
- White Frank M., Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Education, 7th edition, February, 2010, ISBN: 978-0077422417