# Specific Enthalpy of Wet Steam

## Specific Enthalpy of Wet Steam

The specific enthalpy of saturated liquid water (x=0) and dry steam (x=1) can be picked from steam tables. In case of wet steam, the actual enthalpy can be calculated with the vapor quality, x, and the specific enthalpies of saturated liquid water and dry steam:

hwet = hs x + (1 – x ) hl Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â

where

hwet = enthalpy of wet steam (J/kg)

hs = enthalpy of “dry” steam (J/kg)

hl = enthalpy of saturated liquid water (J/kg)

As can be seen, wet steam will always have lower enthalpy than dry steam.

Example:

A high-pressure stage of steam turbine operates at steady state with inlet conditions of Â 6 MPa, t = 275.6Â°C, x = 1 (point C). Steam leaves this stage of turbine at a pressure of 1.15 MPa, 186Â°C and x = 0.87 (point D). Calculate the enthalpy difference between these two states.

The enthalpy for the state C can be picked directly from steam tables, whereas the enthalpy for the state D must be calculated using vapor quality:

h1, wet = 2785 kJ/kg

h2, wet = h2,s x + (1 – x ) h2,l Â = 2782 . 0.87 + (1 – 0.87) . 790 = 2420 + 103 = 2523 kJ/kg

Î”h = 262 kJ/kg

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References:
Reactor Physics and Thermal Hydraulics:
1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading,Â MA (1983).
2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
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5. Todreas Neil E., Kazimi Mujid S. Nuclear Systems Volume I: Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Second Edition. CRCÂ Press; 2Â edition, 2012, ISBN:Â 978-0415802871
6. Zohuri B., McDaniel P. Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems. Springer; 2015, ISBN:Â 978-3-319-13419-2
7. Moran Michal J., Shapiro Howard N. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Fifth Edition,Â John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN:Â 978-0-470-03037-0
8. Kleinstreuer C. Modern Fluid Dynamics. Springer, 2010,Â ISBN 978-1-4020-8670-0.
9. U.S. Department of Energy, THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER,Â AND FLUID FLOW.Â DOE Fundamentals Handbook,Â Volume 1, 2 and 3. JuneÂ 1992.

Steam