Superalloys, or high-performance alloys, are non-ferrous alloys that exhibit outstanding strength and surface stability at high temperatures. Their ability to operate safely at a high fraction of their melting point (up to 85% of their melting points (Tm) expressed in degrees Kelvin, 0.85) is their key characteristics. Superalloys are generally used at temperatures above 540 °C (1000 °F), as at these temperatures ordinary steel and titanium alloys are losing their strengths, also corrosion is common in steels at this temperature. At high temperatures, superalloys retain mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation. Some nickel-based superalloys can withstand temperatures beyond 1200°C, depending on the composition of the alloy. Superalloys are often cast as a single crystal, while grain boundaries may provide strength, they decrease creep resistance.
They were initially developed for use in aircraft piston engine turbosuperchargers. Today, the most common application is in aircraft turbine components, which must withstand exposure to severely oxidizing environments and high temperatures for reasonable time periods. Current applications include:
- Aircraft gas turbines
- Steam turbine power plants
- Medical applications
- Space vehicles and rocket engines
- Heat-treating equipment
- Nuclear power plants
Nickel is the base element for superalloys, which are are a group of nickel, iron–nickel and cobalt alloys used in jet engines. These metals have excellent resistance to thermal creep deformation and retain their stiffness, strength, toughness and dimensional stability at temperatures much higher than the other aerospace structural materials.
Nickel-based superalloys currently constitute over 50% of the weight of advanced aircraft engines. Nickel-base superalloys include solid-solution-strengthened alloys and age-hardenable alloys. Age-hardenable alloys consist of an austenitic (fcc) matrix dispersed with coherent precipitation of an Ni3(Al,Ti) intermetallic with an fcc structure. Ni-based superalloys are alloys with nickel as the primary alloying element are preferred as blade material in the previously discussed applications, rather than Co- or Fe-based superalloys. What is significant for Ni-based superalloys is their high strength, creep and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. It is common to cast turbine blades in directionally solidified form or single-crystal form. Single-crystal blades are mainly used in the first row in the turbine stage.