Photodiodes – Scintillation Counter

A scintillation detector or scintillation counter is obtained when a scintillator is coupled to an electronic light sensor such as:

  • a photomultiplier tube (PMT),
  • a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera,
  • photodiode

All these devices may be used in scintillation counters and all convert the light to an electrical signal and contain electronics to process this signal. A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current. This is a semiconductor device which consists of a thin layer of silicon in which the light is absorbed after which free charge carriers (electrons and holes) are created. A conventional photodiode most often refers to a PIN diode. PIN means that the p and the n doped sides are separated by a depleted i-region. Electrons and holes are collected at the anode and cathode of the diode. This results in a photocurrent that is the output of the diode. The charge is however not amplified making the output signal amplitude small. This makes the photodiode sensitive to electronic noise. On the other hand, the quantum efficiency for the photodiode is high (60-80%) compared to the PMT (20-30%) which gives a higher energy resolution.

 

References:

Radiation Protection:

  1. Knoll, Glenn F., Radiation Detection and Measurement 4th Edition, Wiley, 8/2010. ISBN-13: 978-0470131480.
  2. Stabin, Michael G., Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: An Introduction to Health Physics, Springer, 10/2010. ISBN-13: 978-1441923912.
  3. Martin, James E., Physics for Radiation Protection 3rd Edition, Wiley-VCH, 4/2013. ISBN-13: 978-3527411764.
  4. U.S.NRC, NUCLEAR REACTOR CONCEPTS
  5. U.S. Department of Energy, Instrumantation and Control. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 2 of 2. June 1992.

Nuclear and Reactor Physics:

  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  7. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.
  9. Paul Reuss, Neutron Physics. EDP Sciences, 2008. ISBN: 978-2759800414.

See above:

Scintillation Counters