Generally, occupational radiation protection is the protection of workers in situations where their exposure is directly related to or required by their work.
According to ICRP, occupational exposure refers to all exposure incurred by workers in the course of their work, with the exception of
- excluded exposures and exposures from exempt activities involving radiation or exempt sources
- any medical exposure
- the normal local natural background radiation.
Quantities for Occupational Exposure
The ICRP also defines operational quantities for area and individual monitoring of external exposures. The operational quantities for area monitoring are:
- Ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). The ambient dose equivalent is an operational quantity for area monitoring of strongly penetrating radiation.
- Directional dose equivalent, H’ (d,Ω). The directional dose equivalent is an operational quantity for area monitoring of weakly penetrating radiation.
The operational quantities for individual monitoring are:
- Personal dose equivalent, Hp(0.07). The Hp(0.07) dose equivalent is an operational quantity for individual monitoring for the assessment of the dose to the skin and to the hands and feet.
- Personal dose equivalent, Hp(10). The Hp(10) dose equivalent is an operational quantity for individual monitoring for the assessment of effective dose.
Special Reference: ICRP, 2007. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103. Ann. ICRP 37 (2-4).
See also: Dose Limits
Dose limits are split into two groups, the public, and occupationally exposed workers.
The following table summarizes dose limits for occupationally exposed workers and for the public:
According to the recommendation of the ICRP in its statement on tissue reactions of 21. April 2011, the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year, averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv.
Limits on effective dose are for the sum of the relevant effective doses from external exposure in the specified time period and the committed effective dose from intakes of radionuclides in the same period. For adults, the committed effective dose is computed for a 50-year period after intake, whereas for children it is computed for the period up to age 70 years. The effective whole-body dose limit of 20 mSv is an average value over five years. The real limit is 100 mSv in 5 years, with not more than 50 mSv in any one year.
Occupational Exposure – Effective Dose
In most situations of occupational exposure the effective dose, E, can be derived from operational quantities using the following formula:
The committed dose is a dose quantity that measures the stochastic health risk due to an intake of radioactive material into the human body.