In general, there are many techniques and equipment used for decontamination surfaces and persons. In any case, type of contamination and contaminated material matters. For example, it is very difficult to decontaminate porous materials. As a general orientation to the reader, these decontamination techniques and their main applications are highlighted in:
Special Reference: State of the Art Technology for Decontamination and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities, IAEA. IAEA Vienna, 1999. ISBN 92–0–102499–1.
- Chemical Decontamination. Chemical decontamination is one of the best method for most decontamination operations is to clean with water to which one or more suitable chemical cleaning agents have been added. These methods include decontamination using chemical solutions, chemical gels, foam decontamination etc. Removing contamination from personnel must be done carefully to ensure the skin is not damaged, and to prevent contamination from entering the body or a wound.
- Mechanical Decontamination. Mechanical decontamination can be used especially for industrial decontamination. There are decontamination methods in which the outer layer of the contaminated surface is removed by physical force. Such methods are effective, but they are somewhat crude and destructive, and it may not be possible to use them on delicate objects. These methods include decontamination using steam cleaning, abrasive cleaning, sandblasting, vacuum cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning etc.