Roentgen – Unit of Exposure

Radiation exposure is a measure of the ionization of air due to ionizing radiation from high-energy photons (i.e. X-rays and gamma rays). Radiation exposure is defined as the sum of electrical charges (∆q) on all the ions of one sign produced in air when all the electrons, liberated by photons in a volume of air whose mass is ∆m, are completely stopped in air.

radiation exposure - definition

Radiation exposure is given the symbol X. The SI unit of radiation exposure is the coulomb per kilogram (C/kg), but in practice, the roentgen is used.

Roentgen – Unit of Radiation Exposure

The roentgen , abbreviated R, is the unit of radiation exposure. In the original definition 1 R means the amount of X-rays or γ-radiation that is required to liberate positive and negative charges of one electrostatic unit of charge (esu) in 1 cm³ of dry air at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Note that, 1 esu ≈ 3.33564×10−10 C. As a result, one roentgen corresponds to 2.58 x 10-4 coulomb per kg of ions generated in air and an exposure of one coulomb per kilogram is equivalent to 3876 roentgens.

roentgen - unit of exposure - definition

Radiation exposures measured in industry (except nuclear medicine) often have comparable doses to one roentgen and the following multiples are often used:

1 mR (milli roentgen) = 1E-3 R

1 kR (kilo roentgen) = 1E3 R

To calculate the radiation dose (in Gy) from a radiation exposure of 1 R depends on the energy of the X-rays or γ-rays and the composition of the irradiated material. For example, if soft tissue is exposed to γ-rays of 1 R, the radiation dose will be approximately 9.3 milligray (mGy).

Conversion: Exposure to Absorbed Dose

Dose is defined as the amount of energy deposited by ionizing radiation in a substance. For a given radiation field, the absorbed dose will depend on the type of matter which absorbs the radiation. Although a large number of possible interactions are known, there are three key interaction mechanisms of gamma rays with matter.

For instance, for an exposure of 1 roentgen by gamma rays with an energy of 1 MeV, the dose in air will be 0.876 rad. This can be determined using the ionization energy of dry air at 20 °C and 101.325 kPa of pressure, which is 33.97 J/C. Therefore, an exposure of 2.58×10−4 C/kg (1 roentgen) would deposit an absorbed dose of 8.76×10−3 J/kg (0.876 rad) in dry air at those conditions. A table giving the exposure to dose conversion for various materials for a variety of gamma ray energies can be found in literature.

References:

Radiation Protection:

  1. Knoll, Glenn F., Radiation Detection and Measurement 4th Edition, Wiley, 8/2010. ISBN-13: 978-0470131480.
  2. Stabin, Michael G., Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: An Introduction to Health Physics, Springer, 10/2010. ISBN-13: 978-1441923912.
  3. Martin, James E., Physics for Radiation Protection 3rd Edition, Wiley-VCH, 4/2013. ISBN-13: 978-3527411764.
  4. U.S.NRC, NUCLEAR REACTOR CONCEPTS
  5. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Nuclear and Reactor Physics:

  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  7. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.
  9. Paul Reuss, Neutron Physics. EDP Sciences, 2008. ISBN: 978-2759800414.

See above:

Exposure