Generally, the dose–response relationship describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food. This article desribes two of four dose-response models concerning the effects of low-dose radiation. Four proposed dose-response models are:
- supra-linear model,
- linear-no-threshold (LNT) model,
- threshold model,
- hormesis model.
The linear no-threshold model (LNT model) is a conservativemodel used in radiation protection to estimate the health effects from small radiation doses. According to the LNT model, radiation is always considered harmful with no safety threshold, and the sum of several very small exposures are considered to have the same biological risk as one larger exposure (linearity).
According to ICRP:
“A dose-response model which is based on the assumption that, in the low dose range, radiation doses greater than zero will increase the risk of excess cancer and/or heritable disease in a simple proportionate manner.“
Special Reference: ICRP, 2007. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103. Ann. ICRP 37 (2-4).
Radiation hormesis is a dose-response phenomenon and it is one of alternative hypothesis, that low doses of ionizing radiation induces beneficial health effects. According to radiation hormesis hypothesis, low doses of low LET radiation can stimulate the activation of repair mechanisms, that protect against disease, that are not activated in absence of ionizing radiation. Low dose here means additional small doses comparable to the normal background radiation (10 µSv = average daily dose received from natural background). Since at high doses the negative effects are irrefutable, there must exist a threshold between the beneficial and the negative effects of radiation. This threshold is known as the Zero Equivalent Point (ZEP).
Radiation hormesis hypothesis proposes that radiation exposure comparable to and just above the natural background level of radiation is not harmful but beneficial, while accepting that much higher levels of radiation are hazardous. Arguments for hormesis center around some large-scale epidemiological studies and the evidence from animal irradiation experiments, but most notably the recent advances in knowledge of the adaptive response. Proponents of radiation hormesis typically claim that radio-protective responses in cells and the immune system not only counter the harmful effects of radiation but additionally act to inhibit spontaneous cancer not related to radiation exposure.
Controversy of LNT Model
As was written previously (LNT model), today the protection system is based on the LNT-hypothesis, which is a conservative model used in radiation protection to estimate the health effects from small radiation doses. This model is excellent for setting up a protection system for all use of ionizing radiation. In comparison to the hormesis model, the LNT model assumes, that there is no threshold point and risk increases linearly with a dose, i.e. the LNT model implies that there is no safe dose of ionizing radiation. If this linear model is correct, then natural background radiation is the most hazardous source of radiation to general public health, followed by medical imaging as a close second.
The LNT model is primarily based on the life span study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors in Japan. However, while this pattern is undisputed at high doses, this linear extrapolation of risk to low doses is challenged by many recent experiments involving cell mechanisms and there is also high uncertainty involved in estimating risk using only epidemiological studies. The problem is that, at very low doses, it is practically impossible to correlate any irradiation with certain biological effects. This is because the baseline cancer rate is already very high and the risk of developing cancer fluctuates 40% because of individual life style and environmental effects, obscuring the subtle effects of low-level radiation. Government and regulatory bodies assume a LNT model instead of a threshold or hormesis not because it is the more scientifically convincing, but because it is the more conservative estimate.
In case of low doses, its conservativeness (linearity) has enormous consequences and the model is sometimes wrongly (perhaps intentionally) used to quantify the cancerous effect of collective doses of low-level radioactive contaminations. A linear dose-effect curve makes it possible to use collective doses to calculate the detrimental effects to an irradiated population. It is also argued that LNT model had caused an irrational fear of radiation, since every microsievert can be converted to the probability of cancer induction, however small this probability is. For example, if ten million people receives an effective dose of 0.1 µSv (an equivalent of eating one banana), then the collective dose will be S = 1 Sv. Does it mean there is 5.5% chance of developing cancer for one person due to eating banana? Note that, for high doses one sievert represents a 5.5% chance of developing cancer.
Problem of this model is that it neglects a number of defence biological processes that may be crucial at low doses. The research during the last two decades is very interesting and show that small doses of radiation given at a low dose rate stimulate the defense mechanisms. Therefore the LNT model is not universally accepted with some proposing an adaptive dose–response relationship where low doses are protective and high doses are detrimental. Many studies have contradicted the LNT model and many of these have shown adaptive response to low dose radiation resulting in reduced mutations and cancers.