Reverse Brayton Cycle – Brayton Refrigeration Cycle

Heat Pump – How does it work

Heat Pump - Heating and Air Conditioning
Heat Pump, Refrigerator, Air Conditioner – basic principle of operation

The term heat pump is usually reserved for a device that can heat a house in winter by using an electric motor that does work W to take heat Qcold from the outside at low temperature and delivers heat Qhot to the warmer inside of the house.

The operating principle of refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps is the same and it is just the reverse of a heat engine. In general, a heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a heat source to a “heat sink“, but in this case the transfer occurs in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. As diagrammed in the figure, by doing external work W, heat is taken from a low-temperature region (heat source) and a greater amount of heat is exhausted at a higher temperature (heat sink).

The most widely used thermodynamic cycle or method for heating, air-conditioning, refrigerators and heat pumps is the vapor compression cycle. But the Brayton cycle can be also used to drive the heat pumps.

 
What is Heat in Thermodynamics
zeroth-law-of-thermodynamics-heat

See also: Heat in Thermodynamics

While internal energy refers to the total energy of all the molecules within the object, heat is the amount of energy flowing from one body to another spontaneously due to their temperature difference. Heat is a form of energy, but it is energy in transit. Heat is not a property of a system. However, the transfer of energy as heat occurs at the molecular level as a result of a temperature difference.

Consider a block of metal at high temperature, that consists of atoms that are oscillating intensely around their average positions. At low temperatures, the atoms continue to oscillate, but with less intensity. If a hotter block of metal is put in contact with a cooler block, the intensely oscillating atoms at the edge of the hotter block gives off its kinetic energy to the less oscillating atoms at the edge of the cool block. In this case there is energy transfer between these two blocks and heat flows from the hotter to the cooler block by this random vibrations.

In general, when two objects are brought into thermal contact, heat will flow between them until they come into equilibrium with each other.  When a temperature difference does exist heat flows spontaneously from the warmer system to the colder system. Heat transfer occurs by conduction or by thermal radiation. When the flow of heat stops, they are said to be at the same temperature. They are then said to be in thermal equilibrium.

Reverse Brayton Cycle – Brayton Refrigeration Cycle

reverse Brayton cycle - cooling and heat pumps
reverse Brayton cycle

In general, the Brayton cycle describes the workings of a constant-pressure heat engine. Today, modern gas turbine engines and airbreathing jet engines are also a constant-pressure heat engines

A Brayton cycle that is driven in reverse direction is known as the reverse Brayton cycle. Its purpose is to move heat from colder to hotter body, rather than produce work. In compliance with the second law of thermodynamics, heat cannot spontaneously flow from cold system to hot system without external work being performed on the system. Heat can flow from colder to hotter body, but only when forced by an external work. This is exactly what refrigerators and heat pumps accomplish. These are driven by electric motors requiring work from their surroundings to operate. One of possible cycles is a reverse Brayton cycle, which is similar to the ordinary Brayton cycle but it is driven in reverse, via net work input. This cycle is also known as the gas refrigeration cycle or Bell Coleman cycle. This type of cycle is widely used in jet aircrafts for air conditioning systems using air from the engine compressors. It is also widely used in the LNG industry where the largest reverse Brayton cycle is for subcooling LNG using 86 MW of power from a gas turbine-driven compressor and nitrogen refrigerant.

 
References:
Nuclear and Reactor Physics:
  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. Kenneth S. Krane. Introductory Nuclear Physics, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 1987, ISBN: 978-0471805533
  7. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  8. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  9. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Advanced Reactor Physics:

  1. K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2.
  2. K. O. Ott, R. J. Neuhold, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4.
  3. D. L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48453-2. 
  4. E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48452-4.

Other References:

Diesel Engine – Car Recycling

See above:

Heating and Air Conditioning