Example of Throttling and Isenthalpic Process

Throttling Process – Isenthalpic Process

A throttling process is a thermodynamic process, in which the enthalpy of the gas or medium remains constant (h = const). In fact, the throttling process is one of isenthalpic processes. During the throttling process no work is done by or on the system (dW = 0), and usually there is no heat tranfer (adiabatic) from or into the system (dQ = 0). On the other the throttling process cannot be isentropic, it is a fundamentally irreversible process. Characteristics of throttling process:

  1. No Work Transfer
  2. No Heat Transfer
  3. Irreversible Process
  4. Isenthalpic Process
A partially open valve or a porous plug
A partially open valve or a porous plug can be used to reduce the pressure in a system.

Example: Throttling of Wet Steam

A high-pressure stage of steam turbine operates at steady state with inlet conditions of  6 MPa, t = 275.6°C, x = 1 (point C). Steam leaves this stage of turbine at a pressure of 1.15 MPa, 186°C and x = 0.87 (point D). Determine the vapor quality of the steam when throttled from 1.15 MPa to 1.0 MPa. Assume the process is adiabatic and no work is done by the system.

See also: Steam Tables

Solution:

The enthalpy for the state D must be calculated using vapor quality:

hD, wet = hD,vapor x + (1 – x ) hD,liquid  = 2782 . 0.87 + (1 – 0.87) . 790 = 2420 + 103 = 2523 kJ/kg

Since it is an isenthalpic process, we know the enthalpy for point T. From steam tables we have to find the vapor quality using the same equation and solving the equation for vapor quality, x:

hT, wet = hT,vapor x + (1 – x ) hT,liquid

x = (hT, wet – hT, liquid) / (hT, vapor – hT, liquid) = (2523 – 762) / (2777 – 762) = 0.874 = 87.4%

throttling process - parameters

In this case of the throttling process (1.15MPa to 1MPa) the vapor quality increases from 87% to 87.4% and the temperature decreases from 186°C to 179.9°C.

Throttling of wet steam
Throttling of wet steam usually causes an increase in vapor quality, increase in entropy and decrease in temperature.
 
References:
Nuclear and Reactor Physics:
  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. Kenneth S. Krane. Introductory Nuclear Physics, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 1987, ISBN: 978-0471805533
  7. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  8. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  9. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Advanced Reactor Physics:

  1. K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2.
  2. K. O. Ott, R. J. Neuhold, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4.
  3. D. L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48453-2. 
  4. E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48452-4.

See above:

Throttling Process