Primary Energy Sources

Primary Energy Sources

primary energy sources - table
Key indicators for 1993, 2011 and prediction for 2020.
Source: World Energy Resources – 2013 Survey
Used by permission of the World Energy Council

Primary energy (PE) is an energy resource found in nature that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process. It is energy contained in raw fuels, and other forms of energy received as input to a system. Primary energy sources take many forms, including nuclear energy, fossil energy — like oil, coal and natural gas — and renewable sources like wind, solar, geothermal and hydropower. These primary sources can be converted to secondary energy source, so called energy carriers. Primary energy sources can be divided into:

  • Non-renewable sources
    • Fossil fuels
      • Oil
      • Coal
      • Natural gas
    • Mineral fuels
      • Natural Uranium
      • Natural Thorium
  • Renewable sources
    • Solar energy
    • Wind energy
    • Hydro and tidal energy
    • Geothermal energy
    • Biomass energy (if sustainably exploited)
Total Primary Energy Supply
Total Primary Energy Supply by resource 1993, 2011 and prediction for 2020.
Source: World Energy Resources – 2013 Survey
Used by permission of the World Energy Council
 
References:
Reactor Physics and Thermal Hydraulics:
  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. Todreas Neil E., Kazimi Mujid S. Nuclear Systems Volume I: Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Second Edition. CRC Press; 2 edition, 2012, ISBN: 978-0415802871
  6. Zohuri B., McDaniel P. Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems. Springer; 2015, ISBN: 978-3-319-13419-2
  7. Moran Michal J., Shapiro Howard N. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Fifth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN: 978-0-470-03037-0
  8. Kleinstreuer C. Modern Fluid Dynamics. Springer, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4020-8670-0.
  9. U.S. Department of Energy, THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1, 2 and 3. June 1992.

See above:

Energy