Mechanical Energy Formula
In physics, mechanical energy (Emech) is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object usually in some force field (e.g. gravitational field). Mechanical energy (and also the thermal energy) can be separated into two categories, transient and stored. Transient energy is energy in motion, that is, energy being transferred from one place to another. Stored energy is the energy contained within a substance or object. Transient mechanical energy is commonly referred to as work. Stored mechanical energy exists in one of two forms: kinetic or potential:
- Potential energy. Potential energy, U, is defined as the energy stored in an object subjected to a conservative force. Common types include the gravitational potential energy of an object that depends on its mass and its distance from the center of mass of another object.
- Kinetic energy. The kinetic energy, K, is defined as the energy stored in an object because of its motion. It depends on the speed of an object and is the ability of a moving object to do work on other objects when it collides with them.
See also: Conservation of Mechanical Energy
An isolated system is one in which no external force causes energy changes. If only conservative forces act on an object and U is the potential energy function for the total conservative force, then
Emech = U + K
The potential energy, U, depends on the position of an object subjected to a conservative force.
It is defined as the object’s ability to do work and is increased as the object is moved in the opposite direction of the direction of the force.
The potential energy associated with a system consisting of Earth and a nearby particle is gravitational potential energy.
The kinetic energy, K, depends on the speed of an object and is the ability of a moving object to do work on other objects when it collides with them.
K = ½ mv2
The above mentioned definition (Emech = U + K) assumes that the system is free of friction and other non-conservative forces. The difference between a conservative and a non-conservative force is that when a conservative force moves an object from one point to another, the work done by the conservative force is independent of the path.
Block sliding down a frictionless incline slope
The 1 kg block starts out a height H (let say 1 m) above the ground, with potential energy mgH and kinetic energy that is equal to 0. It slides to the ground (without friction) and arrives with no potential energy and kinetic energy K = ½ mv2. Calculate the velocity of the block on the ground and its kinetic energy.
Emech = U + K = const
=> ½ mv2 = mgH
=> v = √2gH = 4.43 m/s
=> K2 = ½ x 1 kg x (4.43 m/s)2 = 19.62 kg.m2.s-2 = 19.62 J