Open Pit Uranium Mining – Open Pit Mines

nuclear fuel cycle
Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Source: Nuclear Regulatory Commission from US. License: CC BY 2.0

Uranium mining and milling is the starting process for all nuclear fuel cycles. In this process uranium ore is extracted from the Earth’s crust similarly as for mining of copper, zinc, and other metals. Uranium is often found with copper, phosphates, and other minerals; thus, it is often a co-product of other mining operations. The worldwide production of uranium in 2015 amounted to 60496 tonnes. Kazakhstan, Canada, and Australia are the top three producers and together account for 70% of world uranium production.

Uranium is commonly found  at low levels (a few ppm – parts per million) in all rocks, soil, water, plants, and animals (including humans). Uranium occurs also in seawater, and can be recovered from the ocean water. But only a few of the uranium ores known contain sufficient uranium (greater than 0.1%) to extract commercially. Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as uraninite (the most common uranium ore), phosphate rock deposits, and other minerals.

Uraninite - the most common uranium ore.
Uraninite – the most common uranium ore.

Natural uranium refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature. It consists primarily of isotope 238U (99.28%), therefore the atomic mass of uranium element is close to the atomic mass of 238U isotope (238.03u).  Natural uranium also consists of two other isotopes: 235U (0.71%) and 234U (0.0054%). The abundance of  isotopes in the nature is caused by difference in the half-lifes. All three naturally-occurring isotopes of uranium (238U, 235U and 234U)  are unstable. On the other hand these isotopes (except 234U) belong to primordial nuclides, because their half-life is comparable to the age of the Earth (~4.5×109years for 238U).

Open Pit Uranium Mining

As with other types of hard rock mining there are several methods of extraction. In case of uranium mining, it strongly depends on the concentration of uranium in the ore.  For example, the ore extracted from the Australian Olympic Dam Mine has a concentration of 0.05 %. Most reserves have uranium with a concentration of between 0.1 bis 0.2 %. Noteworthy, in Canadian Saskatchewan ore is mined that contains more than 20 % uranium.

In open pit mining, overburden is removed by drilling and blasting to expose the ore body, which is then mined by blasting and excavation using loaders and dump trucks.  Open pit mines require large holes on the surface, larger than the size of the ore deposit, since the walls of the pit must be sloped to prevent collapse. In 2012, the percentage of the mined uranium produced by open pit was 19.9 percent.For example, the Rössing Uranium Mine in Namibia is the longest-running and one of the largest open pit uranium mines in the world.

References:
Nuclear and Reactor Physics:
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      8. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Advanced Reactor Physics:

      1. K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2.
      2. K. O. Ott, R. J. Neuhold, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4.
      3. D. L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48453-2. 
      4. E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48452-4.

See above:

Uranium Mining