Dry Storage Vaults

In dry storage vaults, the spent fuel is stored in a reinforced concrete building, whose exterior structure serves as the radiation barrier, and whose interior has large numbers of cavities suitable for spent fuel storage units. These cavities contain metallic cylinders in which externally air is insufflated or sometimes the air circulation is natural. Spent fuel is received (either dry or wet) at a vault facility using transfer or transportation casks. The fuel is typically stored in sealed metal storage tubes or storage cylinders, which may hold one or several fuel assemblies. These cylinders provide containment of the radioactive material in the spent fuel. Shielding is provided by the exterior structure. Heat removal is normally accomplished by forced or natural convection of air or gas over the exterior of the fuel containing units or storage cavities, and subsequently exhausting this air directly to the outside atmosphere or dissipating the heat via a secondary heat removal system.

Thus, vault systems typically also require cranes or fuel-handling machines. Typical features of vaults are their modularity, which facilitates incremental capacity extension, separated shielding and containment functions, capability for containment monitoring, and a vertical fuel loading methodology.

References:
Nuclear and Reactor Physics:
  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  7. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Advanced Reactor Physics:

  1. K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2.
  2. K. O. Ott, R. J. Neuhold, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4.
  3. D. L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48453-2. 
  4. E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48452-4.

See above:

Spent Nuclear Fuel