Vanadium-51 as Material – Vanadium-based SPND

Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND) are neutron detectors, that are being widely used in reactors to monitor neutron flux due to its adaptability for in-core severe environment. SPNDs may be a part of the incore neutron flux monitoring system, which provides detailed information on neutron flux distribution and thus the margins to these peak power limits. These detectors use the basic radioactive decay process of its neutron activation material to produce an output signal. As the name implies,  SPNDs do not require an external voltage source to create a voltage potential in the detector. Instead, a current is produced in the detector as the result of neutron activation and subsequent beta decay of the detector itself. Because of the emission of these beta particles (electrons), the wire becomes more and more positively charged. The positive potential of the wire causes a current to flow in resistor, R. The electron current from beta decay can be measured directly with an ammeter.

There are two main advantages of the self-powered neutron detector:

  • Very little instrumentation is required, usually only a millivoltmeter or an ammeter
  • The emitter material has a much greater lifetime than boron or uranium-235 lining used in fission chambers.

On the other hand, there are also disadvantages, one is associated with the fact that currents even at full power operation are very low. Therefore, SPNDs are unable to provide with information about flux distribution at low power operation (10% and less). The main disadvantage of the self-powered neutron detector is that the emitter material decays with a characteristic half-life, which determines the response time of the detector.

The typical SPND is a coaxial cable consisting of:

  • Emitter. An inner electrode, which is made from a material that absorbs a neutron and undergoes radioactive decay by emitting an electron (beta decay). The emitter is usually made of rhodium and is used to produce electrons.
  • Insulation. The emitter is surrounded by insulation, which is usually made of aluminum oxide.
  • Collector. The metal walls of the detector encase these parts and serve as a collector for the. electrons that are produced.- The collector is attached to ground potential,

Self-powered neutron detectors are usually placed into the instrumentation tube of a fuel assembly, they can monitor the entire length of selected fuel assemblies to provide an extremely accurate, three-dimensional map of the neutron flux distribution. Using these data, neutron flux reconstruction can be performed also in the rest of the reactor core.

Typical materials used for the emitter are cobalt, cadmium, rhodium, and vanadium. These materials should be used because they possess relatively high melting temperatures, relatively high cross sections to thermal neutrons and are compatible with the SPND manufacturing process.

Special Reference: William H. Todt, Sr. CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-POWERED NEUTRON DETECTORS USED IN POWER REACTORS. Imaging and Sensing Technology Corporation. New York.

Vanadium Emitter – Vanadium-based SPND

A SPND with a vanadium emitter has a relatively low sensitivity, low burn-up rate, with minimal perturbation of  the local power density and has a very long delayed signal. Vanadium-based detector is the beta-current type of self-powered detector, which uses the following activation reaction to produce a current that can be measured.

1n + 51V → 52V → 52Cr + β

Vanadium-51 has a capture cross-section of 4.9 barns for thermal neutrons without resonances. This reaction leads to production of 52V with T1/2 = 3.74 min which is beta radioactive.

The following characteristics are typical when used in thermal power reactor (e.g. PWR).

  • The vanadium burnup rate is 0.012% per month in a thermal neutron flux of 1013n/cm2/sec.
  • 99% of the signal has a half-life of 3.8 minutes.
  • 1% of the signal is prompt.
  • The subsequent beta emission has an energy of 2.6 MeV.
References:

Radiation Protection:

  1. Knoll, Glenn F., Radiation Detection and Measurement 4th Edition, Wiley, 8/2010. ISBN-13: 978-0470131480.
  2. Stabin, Michael G., Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: An Introduction to Health Physics, Springer, 10/2010. ISBN-13: 978-1441923912.
  3. Martin, James E., Physics for Radiation Protection 3rd Edition, Wiley-VCH, 4/2013. ISBN-13: 978-3527411764.
  4. U.S.NRC, NUCLEAR REACTOR CONCEPTS
  5. U.S. Department of Energy, Instrumantation and Control. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 2 of 2. June 1992.

Nuclear and Reactor Physics:

  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  7. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.
  9. Paul Reuss, Neutron Physics. EDP Sciences, 2008. ISBN: 978-2759800414.

See above:

Incore Instrumentation