Six Groups of Delayed Neutrons – Parameters

Six Groups of Delayed Neutrons – Parameters

Reactor-kinetic calculations with considering of such a number of initial conditions would be correct, but it also would be very complicated. Therefore G. R. Keepin and his co-workers suggested to group together the precursors based on their half-lives.

Therefore delayed neutrons are traditionally represented by six delayed neutron groups, whose yields and decay constants (λ) are obtained from nonlinear least-squares fits to experimental measurements. This model has following disadvantages:

  • All constants for each group of precursors are empirical fits to the data.
  • They cannot be matched with decay constants of specific precursors.

Although this six group parameterization still satisfies the requirements of commercial organizations, a higher accuracy of the delayed neutron yields and a better energy resolution in the delayed neutron spectra is desired.

It was recognised that the half-lives in six-group structure do not accurately reproduce the asymptotic die-away time constants associated with the three longest-lived dominant precursors: 87Br, 137I and 88Br.

This model may be insufficient especially in case of epithermal reactors, because virtually all delayed neutron activity measurements have been performed for fast or thermal-neutron-induced fission. In case of fast reactors, in which the nuclear fission of six fissionable isotopes of uranium and plutonium is important, the accuracy and energy resolution may play an important role.

Delayed neutron fraction - yield
Source: Keepin, G. R., Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley, 1965.
Precursors of Delayed Neutrons
Precursors of Delayed Neutrons
 
References:
Nuclear and Reactor Physics:
  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  7. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Advanced Reactor Physics:

  1. K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2.
  2. K. O. Ott, R. J. Neuhold, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4.
  3. D. L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48453-2. 
  4. E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48452-4.

See previous:

Precursors of Delayed Neutrons

See above:

Delayed Neutrons

See next:

Eight Groups