Periodic table with elements colored according to the half-life of their most stable isotope.
Of the first 82 elements in the periodic table, 80 have isotopes considered to be stable. Technetium, promethium and all the elements with an atomic number over 82 are unstable and decompose through radioactive decay. No undiscovered heavy elements (with atomic number over 110) are expected to be stable, therefore lead is considered the heaviest stable element. For each of the 80 stable elements, the number of the stable isotopes is given. For example, tin has 10 such stable isotopes.
There are 80 elements with at least one stable isotope, but 114 to 118 chemical elements are known. All elements to element 98 are found in nature, and the remainder of the discovered elements are artificially produced, with isotopes all known to be highly radioactive with relatively short half-lives.
Bismuth, thorium, uranium and plutonium are primordial nuclides because they have half-lives long enough to still be found on the Earth, while all the others are produced either by radioactive decay or are synthesized in laboratories and nuclear reactors. Primordial nuclides are nuclides found on the Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed. Primordial nuclides are residues from the Big Bang, from cosmogenic sources, and from ancient supernova explosions which occurred before the formation of the solar system. Only 288 such nuclides are known.
Connection between Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay
The nuclei of radioisotopes are unstable. In an attempt to reach a more stable arrangement of its neutrons and protons, the unstable nucleus will spontaneously decay to form a different nucleus. If the number of neutrons changes in the process (number of protons remains), a different isotopes is formed and an element remains (e.g. neutron emission). If the number of protons changes (different atomic number) in the process, then an atom of a different element is formed. This decomposition of the nucleus is referred to as radioactive decay. During radioactive decay an unstable nucleus spontaneosly and randomly decomposes to form a different nucleus (or a different energy state – gamma decay), giving off radiation in the form of atomic partices or high energy rays. This decay occurs at a constant, predictable rate that is referred to as half-life. A stable nucleus will not undergo this kind of decay and is thus non-radioactive.