- Limiting Time. The amount of radiation exposure depends directly (linearly) on the time people spend near the source of radiation. The dose can be reduced by limiting exposure time.
- Distance. The amount of radiation exposure depends on the distance from the source of radiation. Similarly to a heat from a fire, if you are too close, the intensity of heat radiation is high and you can get burned. If you are at the right distance, you can withstand there without any problems and moreover it is comfortable. If you are too far from heat source, the insufficiency of heat can also hurt you. This analogy, in a certain sense, can be applied to radiation also from radiation sources.
- Shielding. Finally, if the source is too intensive and time or distance do not provide sufficient radiation protection, the shielding must be used. Radiation shielding usually consist of barriers of lead, concrete or water. There are many many materials, which can be used for radiation shielding, but there are many many situations in radiation protection. It highly depends on the type of radiation to be shielded, its energy and many other parametres. For example, even depleted uranium can be used as a good protection from gamma radiation, but on the other hand uranium is absolutely inappropriate shielding of neutron radiation.
In fact in some cases an inappropriate shielding may even worsen the radiation situation instead of protecting people from the ionizing radiation. Basic factors, which have to be considered during proposal of radiation shielding, are:
- Type of the ionizing radiation to be shielded
- Energy spectrum of the ionizing radiation
- Length of exposure
- Distance from the source of the ionizing radiation
- Requirements on the attenuation of the ionizing radiation – ALARA or ALARP principles
- Design degree of freedom
- Other physical requirements (e.g. transparence in case of leaded glass screens)
See also: Interaction of Radiation with Matter
See also: Rad Pro Calculator
Shielding of Radiation in Nuclear Power Plants
Generally in nuclear industry the radiation shielding has many purposes. In nuclear power plants the main purpose is to reduce the radiation exposure to persons and staff in the vicinity of radiation sources. In NPPs the main source of radiation is conclusively the nuclear reactor and its reactor core. Nuclear reactors are in generall powerful sources of entire spectrum of types of ionizing radiation. Shielding used for this purpose is called biological shielding.
But this is not the only purpose of radiation shielding. Shields are also used in some reactors to reduce the intensity of gamma rays or neutrons incident on the reactor vessel. This radiation shielding protects the reactor vessel and its internals (e.g. the core support barrel) from the excessive heating due to gamma ray absorption fast neutron moderation. Such shields are usually referred to as thermal shields.
See also: Neutron Reflector
A little strange radiation shielding is usually used to protect material of reactor pressure vessel (especially in PWR power plants). Structural materials of pressure vessel and reactor internals are damaged especially by fast neutrons. Fast neutrons create structural defects, which in result lead to embrittlement of material of pressure vessel. In order to minimize the neutron flux at the vessel wall, also core loading strategy can be modified. In “out-in” fuel loading strategy fresh fuel assemblies are placed at the periphery of the core. This configuration causes high neutron fluence at the vessel wall. Therefore the “in-out” fuel loading strategy (with low leakage loading patterns – L3P) has been adopted at many nuclear power plants. In contrast to “out-in” strategy, low leakage cores have fresh fuel assemblies in the second row, not at the periphery of the core. The periphery contains fuel with higher fuel burnup and lower relative power and serves as the very sophisticated radiation shield.
In nuclear power plants the central problem is to shield against gamma rays and neutrons, because the ranges of charged particles (such as beta particles and alpha particles) in matter are very short. On the other hand we must deal with shielding of all types of radiation, because each nuclear reactor is a significant source of all types of ionizing radiation.