Beta decay or β decay represents the disintegration of a parent nucleus to a daughter through the emission of the beta particle. This transition (β– decay) can be characterized as:
Beta Decay – Q-value
In nuclear and particle physics the energetics of nuclear reactions is determined by the Q-value of that reaction. The Q-value of the reaction is defined as the difference between the sum of the rest masses of the initial reactants and the sum of the masses of the final products, in energy units (usually in MeV).
Consider a typical reaction, in which the projectile a and the target A gives place to two products, B and b. This can also be expressed in the notation that we used so far, a + A → B + b, or even in a more compact notation, A(a,b)B.
See also: E=mc2
The Q-value of this reaction is given by:
Q = [ma + mA – (mb + mB)]c2
When describing beta decay (reaction without projectile), the disintegrating nucleus is usually referred to as the parent nucleus and the nucleus remaining after the event as the daughter nucleus. The emission of a beta particle, either an electron, β–, or a positron, β+, changes the atomic number of the nucleus without affecting its mass number. The total rest mass of the daughter nucleus and of the nuclear radiation released in a beta disintegration, mDaughter + mRadiation, is always less than that of the parent nucleus, mparent.
The mass-energy difference,
Q = [mparent – (mDaughter + mRadiation)]c2
appears as the disintegration energy, liberated in the process. For example, the Q-value of typical beta decay is:
In the process of beta decay, either an electron or a positron is emitted. This emission is accompanied by the emission of antineutrino (β- decay) or neutrino (β+ decay), which shares energy and momentum of the decay. The beta emission has a characteristic spectrum. This characteristic spectrum is caused by the fact that either a neutrino or an antineutrino is emitted with emission of beta particle. The shape of this energy curve depends on what fraction of the reaction energy (Q value-the amount of energy released by the reaction) is carried by the massive particle. Beta particles can therefore be emitted with any kinetic energy ranging from 0 to Q. After an alpha or beta decay, the daughter nucleus is often left in an excited energy state. In order to stabilize itself, it subsequently emits high-energy photons, γ-rays.