Positive Beta Decay – Positron Decay

Positive Beta Decay – Positron Decay

In positron decay, a proton-rich nucleus emits a positron (positrons are antiparticles of electrons, and have the same mass as electrons but positive electric charge), and thereby reduces the nuclear charge by one unit. In this case, the process can be represented by: An annihilation occurs, when a low-energy positron collides with a low-energy electron.

Electron capture, which is also typical for proton-rich nuclei, competes with positive beta decay, which is more common for lighter nuclei. Electron capture is the primary decay mode for isotopes with insufficient energy (Q < 2 x 511 keV) difference between the isotope and its prospective daughter for the nuclide to decay by emitting a positron. On the other hand, electron capture is always an alternative decay mode for radioactive isotopes that do have sufficient energy to decay by positron emission.

Positron Interactions

The coulomb forces that constitute the major mechanism of energy loss for electrons are present for either positive or negative charge on the particle and constitute the major mechanism of energy loss also for positrons. Whatever the interaction involves a repulsive or attractive force between the incident particle and orbital electron (or atomic nucleus), the impulse and energy transfer for particles of equal mass are about the same. Therefore positrons interact similarly with matter when they are energetic. The track of positrons in material is similar to the track of electrons. Even their specific energy loss and range are about the samefor equal initial energies.

At the end of their path, positrons differ significantly from electrons. When a positron (antimatter particle) comes to rest, it interacts with an electron (matter particle), resulting in the annihilation of the both particles and the complete conversion of their rest mass to pure energy (according to the E=mc2 formula) in the form of two oppositely directed 0.511 MeV gamma rays (photons).

See also: Positron Interaction

See also: Shielding of Positrons

References:

Radiation Protection:

  1. Knoll, Glenn F., Radiation Detection and Measurement 4th Edition, Wiley, 8/2010. ISBN-13: 978-0470131480.
  2. Stabin, Michael G., Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: An Introduction to Health Physics, Springer, 10/2010. ISBN-13: 978-1441923912.
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  5. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Nuclear and Reactor Physics:

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  9. Paul Reuss, Neutron Physics. EDP Sciences, 2008. ISBN: 978-2759800414.

See above:

Beta Decay