Theory of Beta Decay – Mechanism

Beta decay or β decay represents the disintegration of a parent nucleus to a daughter through the emission of the beta particle. This transition (β decay) can be characterized as:

Beta Decay - Beta Radioactivity - definition

Beta decay is governed by the weak interaction. During beta decay one of two down quarks changes into an up quark by emitting a W boson (carries away a negative charge). The W boson then decays into a beta particle and an antineutrino. This process is equivalent to the process, in which a neutrino interacts with a neutron.

theory of beta decay - weak interaction

As can be seen from the figure, the weak interaction changes one flavor of quark into another. Note that, the Standard Model counts six flavours of quarks and six flavours of leptons. The weak interaction is the only process in which a quark can change to another quark, or a lepton to another lepton (flavor change). Neither the strong interaction nor electromagnetic permit flavour changing. This fact is crucial in many decays of nuclear particles. In the fusion process, which, for example, powers the Sun, two protons interact via the weak force to form a deuterium nucleus, which reacts further to generate helium. Without the weak interaction, the diproton would decay back into two hydrogen-1 unbound protons through proton emission. As a result, the sun would not burn without it since the weak interaction causes the transmutation p -> n.

In contrast to alpha decay, neither the beta particle nor its associated neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the decay process. By this process, unstable atoms obtain a more stable ratio of protons to neutrons. The probability of a nuclide decaying due to beta and other forms of decay is determined by its nuclear binding energy. For either electron or positron emission to be energetically possible, the energy release (see below) or Q value must be positive.

References:

Radiation Protection:

  1. Knoll, Glenn F., Radiation Detection and Measurement 4th Edition, Wiley, 8/2010. ISBN-13: 978-0470131480.
  2. Stabin, Michael G., Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: An Introduction to Health Physics, Springer, 10/2010. ISBN-13: 978-1441923912.
  3. Martin, James E., Physics for Radiation Protection 3rd Edition, Wiley-VCH, 4/2013. ISBN-13: 978-3527411764.
  4. U.S.NRC, NUCLEAR REACTOR CONCEPTS
  5. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Nuclear and Reactor Physics:

  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  7. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.
  9. Paul Reuss, Neutron Physics. EDP Sciences, 2008. ISBN: 978-2759800414.

See above:

Beta Decay