Validity of Fick’s Law

Validity of Fick’s Law

It must be emphasized that Fick’s law is an approximation and was derived under the following conditions:

  1. Infinite medium. This assumption is necessary to allow integration over all space but flux contributions are negligible beyond a few mean free paths (about three mean free paths) from boundaries of the diffusive medium.
  2. Sources or sinks. Derivation of Fick’s law assumes that the contribution to the flux is mostly from elastic scattering reactions. Source neutrons contribute to the flux if they are more than a few mean free paths from a source.
  3. Uniform medium. Derivation of Fick’s law assumes that a uniform medium was used. There are different scattering properties at the boundary (interface) between two media.
  4. Isotropic scattering. Isotropic scattering occurs at low energies, but is not true in general. Presence of anisotropic scattering can be corrected by modification of the diffusion coefficient (based on transport theory).
  5. Low absorbing medium. Derivation of Fick’s law assumes (an expansion in a Taylor’s series) that the neutron flux, φ, is slowly varying. Large variations in φ occur when Σa (neutron absorption) is large (compared to Σs). Σa << Σs
  6. Time – independent flux. Derivation of Fick’s law assumes that the neutron flux is independent of time.

To some extent, these limitations are valid in every practical reactor. Nevertheless Fick’s law gives a reasonable approximation. For more detailed calculations, higher order methods are available.

Nuclear and Reactor Physics:
  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
  6. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
  7. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.

Advanced Reactor Physics:

  1. K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2.
  2. K. O. Ott, R. J. Neuhold, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4.
  3. D. L. Hetrick, Dynamics of Nuclear Reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48453-2. 
  4. E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48452-4.

See above:

Neutron Diffusion