In general, Doppler broadening is the broadening of spectral lines due to the Doppler effect caused by a distribution of kinetic energies of molecules or atoms. In reactor physics a particular case of this phenomenon is the thermal Doppler broadening of resonances caused by the thermal motion of the target particle in the nuclear fuel.
Doppler effect improves reactor stability. Broadened resonance (heating of a fuel) results in a higher probability of absorbtion, thus causes negative reactivity insertion (reduction of reactor power).
The Doppler broadening of resonances is very important phanomenon, which improves reactor stability. The prompt temperature coefficient of most thermal reactors is negative, owing to an nuclear Doppler effect. Although the absorbtion cross-section depends significantly on incident neutron energy, the shape of the cross-section curve depends also on target temperature.
Nuclei are located in atoms which are themselves in continual motion owing to their thermal energy. As a result of these thermal motions neutrons impinging on a target appears to the nuclei in the target to have a continuous spread in energy. This, in turn, has an effect on the observed shape of resonance. The resonance becomes shorter and wider than when the nuclei are at rest.
Although the shape of a resonance changes with temperature, the total area under the resonance remains essentially constant. But this does not imply constant neutron absorbtion. Despite the constant area under resonance, a resonance integral, which determines the absorbtion, increases with increasing target temperature. This, of course, decreases coefficient k (negative reactivity is inserted).